Himachal Pradesh Economy
Some Important acts
H.P state electronics development corporation ltd was set up in 1984.
Bio technology Park, Nalagarh set up on 27 Oct 2010.
H.P khadi and village industries board set up on 8 Jan 1968.
Department of Labor and Employment 1972.
H.P financial corporation, 1951.
State council of science, Techno logy and environment, 1986.
Himachal Pradesh fisheries act, 1976.
H.P tourism Development Corporation, 1972.
H.P mineral and industrial development corporation, 1971.
H.P Agro Industries Corporation, 1970.
H.P state handloom & handicrafts board, 1974.
Himachal Pradesh tenancy rights and (Restoration) act 1952
Himachal Pradesh Abolition of Big landed Estates and Land Reforms act, 1953.
Himachal Pradesh (Transferred Territory) Tenants (Protection of Rights) act, 1968.
Himachal Pradesh tenancy and land reforms act 1972.
Himachal Pradesh Agriculture and Produce Marketing (Development & Regulation) Act, 2005
Himachal Pradesh village common land vesting and utilization act 1974 (to regularize shamlat land).
H.P state cooperative milk producers federation Ltd was set up in 1983.
National Dairy development Board, 1965
H.P Agro industries corporation ltd, 1970
H.P state civil supplies corporation ltd, 1980.
Himachal Pradesh ceiling on land holdings act, 1972.
- 10 acre: Land assured irrigation capable of growing 2 crops in a year.
- 15 acre: Land assured irrigation capable of growing one crop in a year.
- 30 acre: Other than above (including land under orchards 30 acre).
- 70 acre: Fixed for whole of districts of Kinnaur, Lahual Spiti, Pangi and Bharmaur area of chamba, Chhota Bangal and Bara Bhangal of kangra.
Land settlement: Work was started in state in 1952 from chamba district. But it is yet to be completed in Hamirpur, Kullu and Una.(The process essentially establishes the revenue boundaries of village and towns, which in turn becomes a reference for private individuals to settle exact demarcation of their properties) .Lal Singhi village in Una located in outskirts bordering Punjab is still shown as part of Hoshiyarpur district of Punjab
Little over 10% of the total land area is cultivated in Himachal.
4 % small and marginal farmers who have less than 2 hectare of land. Out of which 68.3% have below 1 hectare and 18.9% have 1-2 hectare land holding.
Cultivation is carried out right from altitude 240 to 4250 m .
Agriculture Department : HQ Shimla
- The dept. of agriculture, Himachal Pradesh was established in year 1948.
- It was merged with forest Department in 1950.
- This arrangement continued till 1952.
- Thereafter agriculture department started functioning independently. At that time horticulture was also part of this department.
- In 1970, government created separate of horticulture
Ploughing is done at higher altitude with the help of Chungroo (cross between yak and cattle).
Himachal accounts for 7% of total area of country. In 2011 population was 0.57 of total population of India.
18 % of total cultivable area under assured irrigation.
Per capital income in 1950-51 current prices was Rs. 240.
Central statistical organization calculates GDP.
- National agricultural insurance scheme was introduced in state from Rabi 1999-2000. Presently Wheat, Barley, Maize, Paddy, Potato and Ginger are covered under this scheme.
- Pesticide testing laboratory, Shimla.
- Bio control laboratory, Palampur.
- Bio control laboratory, Mandi.
- Farmers Training Centers :Mashobra and Sundernagar
- Integrated scheme of oil seeds, pulses, oil palm and maize (ISOPOM) was launched during 2004-05.
- Hp introduced “crop insurances scheme” from year 1981-82 on pilot basis and comprehensive scheme from 1986.
- With collaboration of West Germany, Intensive Agricultural Development Program was launched in Mandi distt in 1962 and kangra in 1967.
- Food security scheme: It was launched by Chief Minister on ridge on 15 Aug 2013. By handing over ration to 103 year old Mast Ram and 70 year old Vidya Devi of Sunni area.
- Himachal Pradesh became 5th state to implement Rajiv Gandhi Ann Yojna.
- Macro management: work plan for accelerated growth of agriculture programme 2000-01.
Major Crops of Himachal
- It is most important food crop of the state.
- Himachal Pradesh ranks 5th in production of maize after P., Bihar, Punjab and Rajsthan.
- Some HYV (High Yielding Varieties) of maize are Him–123, Vijay Amber BL42 and BL 78.
- HYV are RR -21, Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, HPW 155, HPW 251, Omkareshwear (for high altitude), Raj 3777 (for plains).
- It was introduced in H.P in the mid forties, when import of seed potato was stopped from Burma and Other countries due to 2nd world war.
- Himachal is called home of seed potato.
- Central Potato Research Institute, Kufri.
- Famous varieties of Potato: ‘Up-To-Date’, Craigsdefiance, Kufri Chandermukhi, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Jeevan, Kufri Jawahar, Kufri Pukhraj ,Kufri Satluj, Kufri Pushkar Kufri Arun And Kufri Surya.
- Produced mainly in Sirmaur, Solan and Bilaspur.
Tomato: Popular varities of Tomato are Solan lalima, Himsona 7711 and 2000 plus.
Brinjal: Varieties by CSKV (Chauhdary Sarwan kumar H P Krishi Vishvavidyalaya) Palampur
- Arka keshav HHR–21, Arka Nidhi HHR –12
Cauliflower: Varities :Palam Uphar DNKL –12
- Commercial cultivation on modern scientific lines was initiated in 1977 in Solan.
- Only state in the country which is growing mushroom on large scale for the purpose of seed production.
- Indio- Dutch mushroom development project Palampur launched in 1985 for introduction of Dutch technology in Mushroom production which became operational in 1992.
- Solan has been declared mushroom district of the state.
Kuth: cultivated in Lahaul Spiti, Kullu and Kinnaur.
- It extinct when government banned it 1972, which was lifted in
- Used for making special sewing threads and ropes etc.
- Varieties: Jeewan (DPL), Nagarkot (KL-31), Aoyagi, Belinka and Aeriane.
Fisheries in Himachal
Varieties of fish: Exotic Trout, Masheer, Snow Trout, Loaches, Indigenous Lesser Barilas, Mirror carps.
It was in 1909 Shri M.L. Hogel introduced trout breed in Himachal.
In 1912 on the bank of Beas Mahilee fish breeding farm, in 1947 on the bank of Sujanbal Patlee Kuhal farms were set up.
Fish farmer’s development agency, Una.
Trout fish farms in H.P
- Patlikuhal (1909), Kullu (Beas river).
- Bathar Hatchery (1996) ,Kullu (5 km from Patlikulh)
- Barot trout farm (1959),Mandi( on left bank of Uhl and lambadug rivers).
- Holi trout farm (2000),chamba.
- Trout farm Dhamwari (2005) ,Shimla (water drawn from khanyara khad).
- Trout farm Sangla (1965) , Kinnaur ( on Baspa river / Hubra khad).
Carps fish farms in H.P
- Deoli (1960), Bilaspur, water is drawn from Ali Khad.
- Alsu farm (1960),Mandi ,water drawn from Alsu Nala. Only place in Himachal where Mrigal and Rohu are being successfully bred.
- Kangra Farm (1965) pond.
- Sultanpur farm (2000) , chamba.
Silk was first discovered by Chines Empress Xi Ling Shi during 2640 C.
Bombyx mori is the most widely used and intensively studied silkworm.
Type of silks in India: Mulberry, Tropical Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga.
As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larvae, sericulture has been criticized by animal welfare and rights Activists .Mahatma Gandhi was critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy “not to hurt” any living thing. This led to Gandhi’s promotion of cotton spinning machines. He also promoted Ahimsa Silk made from the cocoons of wild and semi wild silk moths.
Kangra is leading in P in producing silk.
There are 9 silk yarn reeling units 3 each in kangra & Bilaspur. One each in Mandi, Una and Hamirpur.
At present the middle zone is (1200 – 2400m) most developed fruit zone of the state.
Nearly 70 % of fruit area and its production are found in this zone, in Mandi, Kullu, Lahaul Shimla, Solan, Sirmaur together contribute 82 % of orchards area and fruit production.
The minimum area under horticulture is in Lahaul Spiti.
- Apple cultivation was started by captain R C Lee in 19th century in Kullu & Alexander couts in Shimla
- There is a fruit research station, first of its kind also known as “couts garden” at Mashobra.
- But British varieties could not get much favor in India as well as in foreign.
- So in 1918 Samuel Evan Stokes introduced delicious verities of S.A..He selected Kotgarh area for apple production.
- The public sector integrated carton manufacturing factory is located at Pragati Nagar (Kotgarh).
- In 2010 for the first time Horticulture succeed in growing apple in lower hills of state between the height of 300 feet and 400 feet.
- In 2014 apple cultivation was reported successful in Hamirpur.
- Organic cure for apple
- The organic formulation made from cow urine, old lassi and Neem oil has proved effective in keeping away not only the marssonina fungus but also a host of other disease. It was developed by a farmer Gopal Mehta of Kotgarh in 2011. Another organic formulation is developed by Arun Kuthiala from Karsog, Mandi. It consists 200 liter of cow urine, one litre Neem oil and soap nut
- The peach bowl of Asia is Rajgarh, Sirmaur .The credit for inception and introduction of peaches in Rajgarh mainly goes to late Y.S. Parmar. The first experimental peach orchards were planted by dept. of Horticulture in 1955.
- The olive cultivation in H.P was started with the technical assistance of Italian govt. in 1984.
- In H.P saffron cultivation has been giving encouraging results in Kinnaur district since 1985- 86. Now the cultivation is also taking place at Tabo (Spiti).
Varities : Dheber Badam, Telangi Selection, Riba Selection.
- Its cultivation was started in Kinnaur in 1958 seeds from Iran, then in 2001 from California were introduced.
- Varieties: Allison, Monty, Abbot, Hayward, Brung.
In 1850 tea plantation was started at kangra, Palampur, Baijnath, Bir and Sindhwar on experimental basis.
In 1852 superintendent of Botanical garden Jamson set up Delhi Tea Estate.Which was renamed Nishan Tea Estate. In 1866 major straut purchased Delhi Tea estate.
In 1866 kangra tea got gold medal in a tea auction function in London.
It was William Jameson, who had introduced the Chinese Green tea, had brought the seeding from the kumaun hills to Nagrota and Bhawarna first.
H.P Horticulture produces marketing and process corp. ltd. (HPMC) was set up in June 1974.