Himachal Pradesh Geography
Himachal Pradesh Geography
- The state of Himachal Pradesh is spread over an area 55,673 km².
- Himachal is surrounded by Jammu Kashmir in north,Tibet in north east ,uttarakhand in south east , Haryana in south and Punjab in west. Its altitude varies from 350-7000m.
- General elevation of altitude increases from west to east.
- It was known as Jallandhara in ancient india , two of the three eastern division of Himalayas kurmachala (kumaon) & Kedara (Garwal) at one end and Kashmir on the other end form borders of H.P.
- Jallandhara consists Jalam+ Dhara (that which hold water) because four main Rivers passes through Himachal.
- Jallandhara was son of sagara(ocean) and Ganga according to Padma Purana.
Himachal is divided into three zones:
1) Shivaliks (outermost range): It is also known as “Manak Parbat” and Shivalik means tresses of Shiva.
- Its altitude varies from 350 m to 1500 m
- Rainfall range is 150 cm to 180 cm.
- Parts of Kangra, Hamirpur ,Bilaspur ,Una ,Mandi ,Solan and Sirmaur falls in this range.
Paonta valley, Nahan, Pachhad and Renuka of Sirmaur ,Balh valley , Jogindernagar of mandi lies in this range.
2) Inner Himalayas :
- Its altitude varies from 1500m to 4500 m.
- Main ranges in inner Himalayas are Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal.
- Renuka tehsil, chachiot and Karsog of mandi, Dalhousie , Shimla ,choordhar (Choorchandani-3647m) ,Kullu valley lies in this range.
- Dhauladhar(White Peak) : is also known as “Maulak Parbat”.
It lies mainly in Chamba ,Kangra and Mandi.
It branches from great Himalayas near Badrinath in Uttarakhand and intercepted by Satluj at Rampur, Beas at Larji, and Ravi.
Northern flank of Dhauladhar impinges against the southern flank of Pir Panjal at the mountain knot of Bara Banghal.
- Pir Panjal: It separates from great Himalayas near the bank of Satluj . It form water divide between Chenab on one side and Ravi and Beas on another side.
3) Greater Himalayas:
- It separate the drainage of Spiti and Beas River.
- Zanskar range is branch of greater Himalayas. It separates Spiti and kinnaur from Tibet. Shilla (7025 m) ,Riwo(Liwo) Pargyul (6791 m) lies in this range.
- This comprises Kinnaur , Pangi and Lahual and spiti.
- Here rainfall is very low which is suitable for dry fruits.
- Many passes are located in this range:
Sach ,chini, chabla, Kugti passed in Chamba
Hamta and chandarkherni passes in Lahaul-Spiti.
Himalayas are also known as “weather maker of Asia”.
Physiographically HP can be divided into five zones:
1) Wet Sub temperate Zone: Palampur, Joginder Nagar, Dalhousie,Dharmashala.
2) Humid Sub-temperate Zone: Kullu, Shimla parts of mandi, Solan ,Chamba ,Kangra and Sirmaur.
3) Dry temperate Zone: Alpine high parts of Lahual Spiti, Pangi , Kinnuar.
4) Humid sub tropical Zone: Mandi , Nahan, Nalagarh ,Nurpur etc.
5) Sub Humid tropical Zone: Una , Paonta sahib, Indora area of Kangra.
Average rainfall in Himachal is 152 cm. Dharamshala( 340 cm) is wettest and Spiti is the driest place in Himachal.
Special climatic phenomenon which has relation to the topography of the western Himalayas:
- Gravity winds: They are vertical movements as result of changes in temperature during various parts of the day. There is downward movement of wind from the ridge top to valley bottom after sunset each day.
- Western Disturbances: World known westerly winds of mid latitudes make their presence felt in western Himalayas.
- Jet stream: Mainly prevalent at very high elevations. These are high speed winds which develop in narrow belt of the upper atmosphere during winter.
- Lee Waves: these are strong winds which cause considerable erosion and damage. They occur on the lee ward side of the mountain.
- South west Monsoon: It causes maximum rainfall in Himalayas.
- Winter monsoon: It is similar to North east trade winds.
Glaciers ,Valleys and Peaks of Himachal
Glaciers in Himachal:
A glacier is a body of ice that originates on land by recrystallisation of snow under definite conditions:
- A distinct area where more snow or ice usually accumulates than what melts.
- Another area where more snow or ice is usually melts or wastes than what accumulates also known as ablation zone.
- A slow transfer of ice mass from first region to the second.
Line separating accumulation and ablation zone is called the equilibrium line.
Glaciers vary widely in form and characteristics:
- The cliff and cirque glaciers
- The valley glaciers
- Continental ice sheets such as Greenland, Antarctica.
Glaciers contain more than 3/4th of world’s fresh water. The Himalayas have nearly 15000 glaciers. 17% of Himalayas and 37% of Karakorum are glaciers.
In local language glaciers are known as “Shigri”.
There are four major concentration of glaciers in Himachal :
- Bara Banghal: lying amidst Kullu,Kangra, Chamba, and Lahaul-Spiti feeding Ravi.
- Near trijunction of Kullu,Spiti and Kinnaur feeding tributaries of Beas and Satluj .
- In zone of Lahaul-Spiti.
- In Kullu valley feeding tributaries of Beas.
Major glaciers in Himachal:
1) Bara Shigri:
- It is largest glacier in Himachal located in Chandra valley of Lahual and feeding the river Chenab.
- It is 3 Km wide and 25 KM long.
- The high mountains surround Bara Shigri from 3 sides.
- It is said in 1936 this glacier caused a great havoc in Chandra valley and formed a large lake known as Chandratal.
2) Chandra Glacier:
- Located on the slopes of the main Himalayas in the Lahual spiti.
- This is originally separated from Bara Shigri .
- It feeds River Chandra.
3) Bhaga Glacier:
- Located on the slopes of main Himalayas range in Lahual area.
- Bhaga originates from this glacier.
- Bhaga glacier can be approached via Koksar and Tandi.
4) The lady of Keylong:
- It can be seen from Keylong.
- It was named so by “Lady Elashaingday” during British raj.
- It remains snow covered around the year but in the middle, there are seen dark bare patches that look like the figure of a woman walking with a load on her back.
5) Mayar Glacier:
- It is the longest in Lahual spiti.
- Other major glaciers in mayar valley are: Manthora,karpat, Uthampu, and Tharong.
6) Gyephang glacier:
- It is named after supreme Gyephang deity of Lahual valley which had its temple in Sarahan.
- Gyephang peak is somewhat like Matterhorn in Switzerland.
- The local fanatic considers it the Manimahesh of Lahual.
7) Kulti glacier: it is near Koksar in Lahual spiti.
8) Milang glacier:
- It is to the north of kulti glacier and located between Darcha and Khekrar in Lahaul-Spiti.
9) Taragiri glacier: It is located near milang glacier.
10) Sonapani glacier:
- Nearby Kulti nala(in Lahaul-Spiti).
- It is visible from the Rohtang pass.
Prominent glaciers in Valleys:
Chandra Valley: Chhota shigri, Pacha, Kulti, Shipting, Ding Karmo, Tapn, Gyephang, Shilli, Bolung and Shamundri.
Bhaga Valley: Milang, Mukkila,Lady of Keylong and Gangstang.
Pattan or Chandrabhaga Valley: shila, Kugti, Lainghar,Doksha and Nilkant.
11) Bhadal glacier:
- Located on the south western slopes of Pir Panjal range in Bara Banghal area of Kangra.
- Bhadal River is fed by this glacier.
12) Chandra Nahan :
- Located on south eastern slopes of the main Himalayas in area to the north west of Rohru.
- Pabbar River is fed by this glacier.
13) Dudhon and Parbati: Located in Kullu district, they feed the River parbati.
14) Beas Kund:
- This is the feeder of the Beas River.
- It is located on the south facing slopes of towering Pir Panjal near the world famous Rohtang pass.
15) Pin Parbati glacier: Located in Beas Valley.
Prominent valleys in Himachal:
1) Satluj Valley:
- A long valley formed by the Satluj River form shipki la to Bilaspur.
- Satluj cut across the Dhauladhar ,Pir Panjal ,Main Himalayas and Zanskar range.
- The town of Bilaspur,Rampur, and Bhabha are located along this River.
- The major landslides in the geologically fragile terrain of Satluj basin have been included in the “Red list” under the integrated catchment area treatment plan. The main objective of adopting this approach is to deal with landslides and to arrest the ever increasing level of silt in River which frequently forces power projects like 1500MW Nathpa Jhakri to shutdown.
2) Kiar Da Dun Valley:
- It is also known as Paonta valley.
- It is situated in the south eastern corner of the state in the Markanda and Dharathi range.
- Yamuna River seperates it from Dehradun.
- It may be divided into three district tracts:
- a) The tract which consists the Neli Khera and adjoining hills of the lower Dharathi on the north of the Bata, east of the Jamun Khala, west of the Tila Gharib nath and south of the Rajban.
- b) The par-dun tract which is surrounded by hills lies near majra village.
- c) The dun proper: which lies between the Yamuna and the lower parts of Dharathi range and Poka hills.
- It is usually watered by the Giri and bata streams.
- A greater part of this valley falls within the Cis-Giri division.
- Till a century back, it was a dense forest inhabited by wild animals. It was only during the period of Raja Shamsher Prakash that people settled in it.
- A sikh Gurudwara at paonta sahib and a Ram Mandir are two famous religious places in this valley.
3) Kangra valley:
- It is located between the Dhauladhar in north and shivalik in south.
- It ranges from west to east rising gradually from shahpur to Baijnath and Palampur.
- Important towns in this valley are Baijnath, Palampur, Kangra, Nurpur and Dharamshala.
- Shobha singh art gallery (Andretta) ,Shiva temple(Baijnath),Tibetan government in exile (Mcleodganj) ,Chamunda mandir, Bajreshwari temple and tapovan (sandeepani Himalaya) are famous attraction in this valley.
4) Kullu valley:
- This is broad open valley formed by Beas River between Mandi and Larji.
- It is sandwiched between the Pir Panjal ,Shivaliks hills and Great Himalayas.
- It is believed this valley was once a vast lake.
- The towns of Mandi, Bhuntar, Manali and Shamshi lies in this valley.
- It is 75 Km in length and about 2 to 4 Km in width and ends near Rohtang pass.
- Naggar castle, Nehru kund, Roerich Art gallery, Hidimba temple and hot water springs are main attractions of this valley.
5) Bara Banghal valley:
- It is adjoining to the Kangra valley and lies between the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal .
- It is partly in Chamba and partly in Kangra district.
6) Balh valley:
- This is also known as Sundarnagar valley.
- Broad open dun type valley between an offshoot of the Shimla ridge in north and Shivalik hills to Sundarnagar in south, Baggi in east and Gumma in west.
- Suketi khad divides this valley roughly into two parts.
- To promote mixed farming, animal husbandry, manuring and soil conservation Indo-German agriculture project was started in this valley in Nov 1962.
7) Chamba valley:
- Also known as Ravi valley or valley of honey and milk.
- It is famous for medicinal herbs and varities of flowers.
- Important towns in this valley are Chamba , Bharmaur, Dalhousie and Khajjiar.
- Adjoining to Chamba valley is Pangi valley expanding along the Chenab valley.
8) Lahual and Spiti valley:
- Lahaul valley lies to the north of the Pir Panjal and main Himalayan range.
- It is made up of River Chandra and Bhaga till Tandi and Chenab from Tandi to Udaipur, downstream of which lies the famous Pangi valley.
- Spiti valley has been formed by the Spiti River. It is situated between the main Himalayan and Zanskar range. Kaza is a small town located in this valley.
- Lahual and Spiti valley are surrounded by mountains with elevations ranging from 3000m to 6500m.
- The land in Lahual valley is quite fertile and extensively used for off season vegetables and potatoes.
- Pin valley is tributary of Spiti valley in the trans-Himalayan zone.
9) Baspa Valley:
- Also known as “sangla valley” formed by Baspa River in Kinnaur.
- Chitkul village lies in this valley.
- This valley is famous for green pastures, flowers and fruit trees.
- At the head of the valley lies the lofty chung shakhago pass.
- From chitkul to Satluj lies the inhabited part of the valley.
- It opens into Satluj valley downstream of Tshong-Tong River.
10) Pabbar valley:
- Also known as Rohru valley.
- This extends from Hatkoti upto Tikri at the base of Chansal.
- Important streams passing through this valley are Andhra khad, Pejore and Shhikri stream.
- Pabbar River is famous for trout fish, which was introduced in this by Mr.Glover a British chief conservator of the forest in 1938-39.
- Solan: Dun valley,Sproon valley,Kunihar valley
- Una: Seon valley
- Lahual and spiti: Mutua valley,Pattan valley
- Mandi: Chuhar valley
Mountain passes in Himachal:
1) Baralacha pass:
- It is situated on Mandi-Leh road about 75Km from Keylong towards Leh.
- Also known as “Pass with cross roads on summit”.
- And roads from Zanskar, Ladakh, Spiti and Lahual meet on the top of this pass.
2) Kunjum Pass:
- It is between Spiti and Lahual.
- The Spiti area is separated by great Kunzum range from where the Spiti River originates.
- Pass is situated on Grampho-Kaza-Sumdo road.
- Local people have built a goddess Durga temple on this pass.
3) Tempo la:
- It is situated in the district of Lahual spiti.
- One has to walk along Yoche nallah to the base of this pass.
- Khoksar village lies near by this pass.
- From Khoksar either one can return to Keylong or to Spiti via Kunzum pass or May go to Manali via Rohtang pass.
4) Bhabha Pass:
- Located in Kinnaur.
- To go to Bhabha pass from Manali one is to go to Kaza over Rohtang pass and Kunzum pass first then to Attargo, then to Spiti and finally to Pulti.
5) Hamta Pass :
- Between Pir Panjal-Kullu-Spiti.
- One has to go beyond Manali through Indrasan, Deo tibba and Inder Killa climbing to its top.
- During descending one meets the historic cave “Arjun Gufa” at Bhanara.
6) Darati Pass:
- Between Chamba and Pangi.
- From Chamba one has to go to Alyas via Bhango.
- To descend over grassy and moraine slopes to Tandi one has to come down further to Udaipur ( Trilokinath temple).
7) Manirang Pass:
- In Kinnuar
- To cross this pass the Manessar pass located above the confluence of Ropa and Chuktayanjan rivulets has to be crossed while walking 12 Km distance from Ropa to Panktil ,beyong Kalpa.
8) Rohtang Pass:
- Ro-Thang means plains of corpses.
- It forms the main gateway between Lahaul-Spiti and the rest of the southern area of Kullu –Manali.
- Rohtang is famous pass across the Pir Panjal range on the National Highway to Leh being world’s second highest road point.
- It is notorious for its sudden blizzards and snow for 7-8 months in a year.
- First Englishman to reach Rohtang pass was Moorcraft in 1820 who called it “Ritanka Jot”.
9) Sach pass:
- The most convenient route for trekking into the famous Pangi valley in Chamba.
- Killar having a helipad facility is 137 Km from Chamba and could be reached through this pass.
10) Shinghor Pass: This pass can be approached from Alyas lying beyond Dharamshala.
River System in Himachal
1) Yamuna :
- It enters at khaddar Majari in Sirmuar and leaves state near Tajewala to enter Haryana.
- It has mythical relation to Sun.
- It forms eastern boundary of Himachal with Uttarakhand.
- Tons, Pabbar, Giri, Jalal etc are its main tributaries.
a) Tons: It is important tributary of Yamuna. It joins Yamuna at “Kalsi” in Dehradun valley. It rises from two feeder streams Supin and Rupin, these two steams merge near mountain hamlet of Naitwar in Uttrakhand after which it is known as Tons River.
b) Giri: Also known as Giri or Giriganga. It rises from “Kupar peak” just above Jubbal town in Shimla. It divides Sirmaur into two equal parts i.e Cis Giri and Trans Giri.
c)Jalal: it is tributary of Giri. Rises from Dharathi range in Sirmaur.
d) Markanda: Rises from Kiarda dun valley. Nahan is situated on bank of this River.
e) Andhra: It is tributary of Pabbar. It rises from near chirgaon in Shimla.
f)Asni : it is tributary of Giri.
- It originates in boulders below Nahan ridge as Jalmusa-Ka-Khala.
- It is tributary of Giri.
- Its tributaries are Khara ka Khala, Kansar Khala.
i)Pabbar: It is tributary of tons . It rises from “Chandar Nahan “ in Shimla.
j) Patsari : it is tributary of Pabbar River. It rises from lower Himalayan hills near kharapathar in Shimla.
2) Satluj: its vedic name is satudari and Sanskrit name is shatadru.
- It rises from Kailash mountain near mansarovar lake from “ Rakas lake” as Longchhen KhabagRiver in Tibet.
- It enters at Shipkila in Himachal and leaves at Bhakra to enter Punjab.
- It lives kinnaur at Chauhra and enters Shimla. It flows through kinnaur, Shimla, Kullu , Solan, mandi and Bilaspur.
- Settlements on its bank: Namgia, Kalpa, Rampur, Bilaspur.
- Its tributaries are: Spiti, Ropa, Taiti, Kashang, Mulgaon, Yula, Wanger, Rupi, Baspa, Duling ,Soldang ,Throng ,Tirung ,Gyathang etc.
a) Baspa : It originates from Baspa hills in kinnaur and joins Satluj near Karchham.
- Originates from Kunzum range in Lahaul-Spiti. Tegpo and Kabzian are its tributaries.
- It meets Satluj at Namgia in kinnaur. Main settlements along Spiti are Honsi and Dhankar Gompa.
c) Nogli khad : Joins Satluj below Rampur Bushahar.
d) Soan River: it rises from the southern slopes of shivaliks range also known as “solasinghi range”.
3) Beas: Its vedic name was Arjikiya and sanskrit name as Vipasha.
- Originates from Rohtang pass. Rohtang’s old name was “Bhrighu Tung”.
- On the right of this River lies source of the River Beas known as “Beas Rishi”. To the south of this source lies another source known as “Beas Kund”. Streams from both these sources meets at “Palachan village” (10KM from Manali).
- Lahaul-Spiti was not connected to Kullu in ancient times. People of these places prayed to Lord shiva to provide a way to connect both places. So Lord shiva cut mountain with his “Trishul” and made this pass.
- It meets Satluj at “Hari Ka Pattan” in Punjab.
- Settlements along this River: Manali, Naggar, Katrain ,Raison, Kullu, Pandoh, Mandi, Sujanpur, Nadaun, Dehra-Gopipur.
|Why Beas is known as Vipasha?Once Vishawamitra killed 100 sons of Rishi Vashist and in sheer agony Vashisht jumped into this River (Arjikiya) after tying himself with ropes. But the River got him out of the water after removing ropes and throws him at a place now known as Vashisht village .And Arijikiya came to known as Vipasha because it removed ropes of Vashisht.
Narad, Vashisht, Viswamitra, Bhrighu, Jamdagani, Bharadwaj, Vamdev, Kapil, Gautam, Shringi, Vyas and Parshuram are some people who came here on different occasions.
Its main tributaries are : Parbati, Spiti, Malana, Solang, Manalsu, Sujoin ,Phojal, Sarvari, Dehar, Hansa, Tirthan ,Jiuni, Suketi ,Son ,sainj etc.
Tributaries which originates from Dhauladhar range:
- Awa River in Kangra
- Baner River: rises near palampur.
- Banganga : in Kangra
- Gaj Khad : joins Beas above pong dam.
- a) Harla: Joins Beas near Kullu in Bhuntar.
- b) Parbati : it rises near Manikaran from main Himalayan range in Kullu. Manikaran and Kasol are main settlements on this River.
- c) Tirthan : Rises from Main Himalayas in Kullu and joins Beas at Larji.
- d) Uhl : Dhauladhar in Kangra ,merge with Beas in Mandi.
4) Chenab :
- Chandra and Bhaga rises on opposite sides of Baralacha pass, and meets at Tandi to form Chenab. It enters Pangi near “Bhujind” and leaves Chamba at “Sansari Nala” to enter “Podar Valley” of Kashmir.
- It is largest River in terms of volume of water in Himachal.
- Main settlements along this River: Udaipur, Killar, Doda ,Ramban etc.
- Bhaga: It originates from Lahaul Valley.
- Chandra: it originates from Chandra glacier. Kokhsar is a village located along this River.
- It rises from Bara Banghal in Kangra.
- Chamba town is situated on its right bank. It flows through a trough separating the Pir Panjal from Dhauladhar range. It leaves Chamba at “Kheri”.
- Alexander called it “Hydraster/ Rhoudis” .It merges with Chenab in Pakistan.
- Bhadal : it rises from range between Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar in Bara Banghal and merges with Tantgiri.
- Siul :It rises between Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar.
And other are Baira, Tantgiri, Budhil ,Tundahan, Saho,Chirchind Nala.
6) Swan River :
- It is monsoon fed and rises in Lower shivalik hills in Una.
- It is also known as “River of Sorrow” in Una.
- It divides Una in almost two equal parts.
Lakes in Himachal Pradesh
1) Govind Sagar Lake:
It is situated on world’s highest gravity dam. Pandit Nehru called this dam “New Temple of Resurgent India” .
- It exists between slapper and Bhakhra villages.
- It is largest artificial lake in HP.
2) Ghadasaru Lake:
- It is in Chamba
- A kali temple is located near its bank
3) Khajjiar lake:
- A small lake called the Kund forms the centre piece of Khajiiar.
- A temple dedicated to Khajjia Nag is also located here.
- It is 24 Km from Dalhousie.
- It is also known as “Mini Switzerland” by swiss envoy Willy P.Blazer on 7th Jul 1992.
- Sign board here indicated its distance from swiss capital Berne.
- It is 166th to be christened as “Mini Switzerland”.
4) Lama Dal Lake:
- It is group of 7 lakes.
- It is 20 Km from Dainkund.
- Its depth is unknown.
- Local Gaddi tribe visit this lake on Janamastami.
- 5) Manimahesh Lake:
- It is 35 Km from Bharmour.
- Situated at the foot of mount Kailash(5660m).
- It is said to be blessed by kali and protected by shiva.
- Manimahesh yatra is held every year here.
6) Chamera lake:
- Formed due a hydro project on River Ravi in chamera village.
- The road connecting the chamera dam goes along the lake to “Bhalie temple” and the famous thick forest of bhandal valley.
7) Mahakali lake:
- It is devoted to Kali.
- Located at Churah in Chamba.
8) ChanderKup Tal :
- It is in Chamba.Snow covers for the most the time this lake.
- During summer season ice blocks keep floating in it.
9) Dal Lake:
- In Dharamshala,Kangra.
- Also known as Bhagsunag lake.
- A temple dedicated to Lord Drivehswar/Dhrumeshwar built by sage Agastya is located here.
- After 15 days of janmashtami a fair known as Radhaashtami is held here.
10) Pong Lake:
- Formed between Dehra and Pong dam on Beas River built in 1960 which displaced 95 villages.
- This is declared as sanctuary in 1983.
- Only place in india other than Bharatpur(Rajasthan) where the rare red necked grebe has been found.
11) Kareri Lake:
- In Dharamshala
- Its water falls into Layun River.
12) Kumarwah lake:
- In Chachiot, Mandi
- Gold and Silver offerings accumulated at a shrine nearby are thrown in this lake.
13) Rewalsar lake: In mandi
- It is known as “floating island”.
- It is also known as “Padmacan” which means lotus possessing and consider this place where spirit of Padmasambhava rests.
- This lake is also associated with Naga Cult or serpent worshipping.
- Lake water is floating underground from Rewalsar to “Nagachala”(a 10 km from Mandi on the Mandi-Shimla National Highway).
|Why Rewalsar Lake named “Padmacan”?There was a king “Arshadhara” of “Zahor” (the Tibetan name of mandi).His daughter Mandarva resolved to renounce her royal ties and dedicate herself to religious order. She took bow before Bhudhist scholar named “Shantarakshita” (believed to be brother of Padmasambhava). One day Padamsambhav came to give her teachings, a cow herder who saw them spread the news that Mandarva was flirting with a man. Angry King put Mandrava inside a hole full of thorns in earth and tied Padmasambhava to a pyre and set on fire. When smoke did not clear off for a week the king visited the same place and found to his surprise the place had turned into a lake with lotus at the centre of the lake. Repenting King offered him his Kingdom and princess was married to Padmasambhava.
- “Lomash Rishi” held penance in devotion to lord Shiva, overwhelmed Shiva gave the Rishi, the seven floating islands in reward.
- There is a sikh “Gurudwara” built in commemoration of Guru Govind singh’s visit.
14) Kunt Bhayog lake: It is situtated at the hill top of rewalasar town mandi.
15) Kalasar lake: Situated at the hill top of rewalasar town.
16) Sukhsar Lake: it is on the top of Rewalsar town in mandi.
17) Pandoh lake:
- It is 14 Km form Mandi on Mandi-Kullu NH-21. Formed by diverting water of Beas River to Satluj at slapper.
18) Prashar lake:
- 30 KM from mandi
- A temple Pagoda like three storyed temple is also located here.
- Prashar fair is also held here.
19) Bhrighu lake :
- Near Rohtang pass in Kullu.
20) Servalsar lake: It is situated on the top of Jalori pass in Kullu.
21) Mantilai: It is source of Parbati River in Kullu.
22) Shringtingu lake: it is in Kullu, a panaromic view of Bara Banghal is enjoyable form this place.
23) Chadaranahan lake: It is situated on “Chansal peak” in Rohru tehsil.
Pabbar River originates from this lake.
24) Tanu Jubbal : Near Narkanda ,Shimla.
25) Karali lake:
- It is dirty water lake on chhota shali hillock.
- Its size is equal to Annadale ground of Shimla.
26) Nako Lake:
- Famous for skating
- Near Nako village in Kinnaur.
27) Sorong lake: In Kinnuar
28) Renuka Lake:
- It is about 45 KM from Nahan shaped like sleeping woman.
- It was found when mother Renuka was sacrificed by her son Parshuram in obedience to his father.
- Renuka fair is held here yearly.
- It is biggest natural lake in HP.
- Lies in depression formed by a fault in earth’s crust.
- It is believed Giri River once use to flow along its bank
29) Saketi Lake(Suketi):
- Near shivalik fossil park in Sirmaur.
- Now it is filled with sand.
30)Suraj Tal :
- It also known as lake of sun.
- It is source of Bhaga River located opposite Baralacha pass in Lahual spiti.
31) Chandra Tal:
- Also known as lake of moon.
- It is source of Chandra River.
- Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang called it “Lohitya Sarovar”.
32) Una so lake: in Lahaul-Spiti
Springs in Himachal
Springs in Himachal:
A spring is a natural flow of ground water. Most of the springs in HP are located in Satluj and Beas valley.
Generally there are three types of springs observed in HP:
1) Ordinary springs: Temporary or permanent passing underground water to the surface.
2) Mineral water spring: it has mineral dissolved in it.
3) Hot water spring: Quite popular in HP for their medicinal properties.
The origin of hot spring may be either magmatic where the hot molten thrust of the earth meets the ground water .The magmatic surface and the heated liquid emerges as hot spring.
- They may be alkaline or acidic in nature.
- They are rich in minerals like calcium, silica and sulphur.
1) Tatta pani:
- In mandi ,it is 29 Km from Naldera located on the right bank of Satluj.
- This is natural sulphur spring with curative power for various kinds of bodily and imaginative ailments.
- Water level of spring rises with water level of the River.
- Now a substantial part of this spring has submerged in the kol dam project.
2) Mani Karan:
- It is 45 KM from Kullu.
- Along the bank of River Parbati.
- Temperature is well above boiling point.
Why this spring named ManiKaran?
According to a legend once a while Maa Parbati was taking bath here, she lost her ear rings in the kund(Pond). When she told it to Lord Shiva, He became furious and looked at the water of the kund with great anger. With this thousands of ear rings flowed out from the boiling water and since then the water of the spring is boiling. The name Mani-karan also means ear rings.
- There is no sulphur or iron content in the water but it is said to be a radioactive spring.
- The water is so hot that pulse,rice etc can be boiled and cooked in it.
- People come here for the cure of their ailments such as pneumonia, muscular pain etc.
- It is famous for a Hindu temple and Gurudwara.
3) Kasol :
- It 1 KM further upstream Manikaran and 32 KM from Bhuntar(first airport of HP).
- Located opposite to Nikhthan village on the bank of Parbati.
- It is 26 KM from Kullu
- It is also hot water spring but not as hot as Manikaran.
- It is 3 KM from Manali.
- Located on the left bank of Beas.
- It is famous for temples of Vashisht Rishi and Lord Rama.
- HP tourism Development Corporation have built Turkish type baths,500m below Vashisht village . Hot water from the spring is brought and stored in a huge water tank from where it is channelled to the bathroom of HPTDC.
- At jeori in kinnaur, is a hot water spring.
- It is situated at the right bank of Unu Nallah beyond Rampur-Bushahr on Hindustan-Tibet road.
Springs in Kangra:
- Kopra a cold water spring, near Naduan.
- Jawalamukhi a hot water spring.
- Lunani spring a cold water spring.
- Salol spring a cold water spring discovered by Captain A.Colman.
- In the plum valley there is a spring near Baijnath.
- Sulah a cold water spring.
Falls/Springs in Himachal:
1. Rahla water fall: near Manali in Kullu.
2. Satdhara water spring: near Panjpulla in Chamba.
3. Dhanchho water fall: Near Bharmaur,Chamba
4. Kalika kund: a cold water spring at Man in Chamba.
5. Chadwick water fall: Near summer hill in Shimla.
6. Bhagsunag water fall: Near Macleodganj, Dharamshala